Barriers to investment toward Barriers to learning: the case of Béjaia area's companies in Algeria

  • Khierddine Gani University of B├⌐jaia
  • Boukrif Moussa University of B├⌐jaia
Keywords: learning by exploitation, learning by exploration, environmental stability, formalization, centralization of decision-making.


The purpose of this paper is to identify the obstacles inhibiting the building culture of organizational learning in the Algerian company. The business climate or the professional conditions in which Algerian companies operate are steadily worsening according to the Doing Business report 2016. Algeria does not facilitate the task for its entrepreneurs, quite the contrary. The Doing business report make a comparison of countries in the world in the field of entrepreneurship, and Algeria is very poorly placed. Algeria continues to fall in the Doing Business ranking of the World Bank and loses two more places compared to the last year joining the group of the last countries. Algeria, ranked 163 out of 189 countries in Doing Business 2016, remains a very difficult country to do business. Starting from this idea, we will see how these barriers to investment -the complexity of procedures to create companies, the long durations to receive a building permit, etc- are mainly caused by the institutional deficit in the coordination of economic activity, have contributed to the construction of obstacles to organizational learning in Algerian companies.

Author Biographies

Khierddine Gani, University of Béjaia
Gani khierddine is a first year PhD student in business management at the University of Béjaia, department of management sciences. He received a bachelor's degree in management and a master's degree in business management from the University of Béjaia. Her current work focuses on organizational learning through partnership
Boukrif Moussa, University of Béjaia
Boukrif Moussa is a Professor of Universities at the University of Bejaia, department of management sciences. He is a Director of the Entrepreneurship House of Bejaia. He is a Director of laboratory of Research in Management and Quantitative Techniques (RMQT) at University of Bejaia and Management consultant


Atuahene-Gima, K. (2003). The Effects of Centrifugal and Centripetal Forces on Product Development Speed and Quality: How Does Problem Solving Matter? Academy of Management, 46(3), 359-373. doi:10.2307/30040629

Birkinshaw, J., Hood, N., & Jonsson, S. (1998). Building firm-specific advantages in multinational corporations: the role of subsidiary initiative. Strategic Management Journal, 19(3), 221ΓÇô242. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0266(199803)19:3<221::AID-SMJ948>3.0.CO;2-P

Bunderson, J. S., & Boumgarden, P. (2010). Structure and Learning in Self-Managed Teams: Why ΓÇ£BureaucraticΓÇ¥ Teams Can Be Better Learners. Organization Science, 21(3), 609ΓÇô624. doi:10.1287/orsc.1090.0483

Burns, T., & Stalker, G. M. (1961). The management of innovation. London: Tavistock Publications.

Company directory and business data solutions. (n.d.). Retrieved from Kompass:

Deshpande, R., & Zaltman, G. (1982). Factors Affecting the Use of Market Research Information: A Path Analysis. Journal of Marketing Research, 19(1), 14-31. doi:10.2307/3151527

Dess, G. G., & Beard, D. W. (1984). Dimensions of Organizational Task Environments. Administrative Science Quarterly, 29(1), 52-73. Retrieved from

Dewar, R. D., Whetten, D. A., & Boje, D. (1980). An Examination of the Reliability and Validity of the Aiken and Hage Scales of Centralization, Formalization, and Task Routineness. Administrative Science Quarterly, 25(1), 120-128. doi: 10.2307/2392230

Easterby-Smith, M. (1997). Disciplines of organizational learning: contributions and critiques. Human Relations, 50(9), 1085ΓÇô1113. doi:10.1023/A:1016957817718

Fang, C., Lee, J., & Schilling, M. A. (2009). Balancing Exploration and Exploitation Through Structural Design: The Isolation of Subgroups and Organizational Learning. Organization Science , 21(3), 625 - 642. Retrieved from

Hage, J., & Aiken, M. (1967). Relationship of Centralization to Other Structural Properties. Administrative Science Quarterly, 12(1), 72-92. Retrieved from

Hair, J. F., Tatham, R. L., Anderson, R. E., & Black, W. (1998). Multivariate Data Analysis (5 ed.). Prentice Hall.

Hedberg, B. (1981). How Organizations Learn and Unlearn. In P. N. Starbuck, Handbook of Organizational Design (Vol. 1). London: Cambridge University Press.

Jansen, J. J., Van Den Bosch, F. A., & Volberda, H. W. (2005). Managing Potential and Realized Absorptive: How do Organizational Antecedents Matter? Academy of Management Journal, 48(6), 999ΓÇô1015. Retrieved from

Khandwalla, P. (1977). Design of Organizations. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Li, M., & Simerly, R. L. (1988). The moderating effect of environmental dynamism on the ownership and performance relationship. Strategic Management Journal, 19(2), 169-179. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0266(199802)19:2<169::AID-SMJ939>3.0.CO;2-2

March, J. G. (1991). Exploration and Exploitation in Organizational Learning. Organization Science, 2(1), 71-87. Retrieved from

March, J., & H.A, S. (1958). Organizations. New York: John Wiley.

Miller, D., & Friesen, P. H. (1983). Strategy-Making and Environment: The Third Link. Strategic Management Journal, 4(3), 221-235. doi:10.1002/smj.4250040304

Nord, W., & Tucker, S. (1987). Implementing routine and radical innovations. San Francisco: New Lexington Press.

Shrivastava, P. (1983). A typology of organizational learning systems. Journal of Management Studies, 20(1), 7-28. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6486.1983.tb00195.x

Weick, K. (1969). The Social Psychology of Organizing. Reading MA: Addison-Wesley.

Zahra, S. A., & Bogner, W. C. (2000). Technology strategy and software new ventures' performance: Exploring the moderating effect of the competitive environment. Journal of Business Venturing, 15(2), 135-173. Retrieved from