Open and Linked Data in Business: Disruptive Marketing Mix 3.0

  • Milena Yordanova Krumova Technical University - Sofia
  • Lyudmila Blagoeva Paunova Technical University - Sofia
  • Stefka Stanislavova Yotova Technical University - Sofia
Keywords: Open Data, Linked Data, Business, Model, Marketing


This research aims to explain how the use of Open and Linked Data impacts the business practices. Building business based on Open Data may seem counterintuitive, but new models such as Marketing 2.0/3.0 are emerging with greater frequency and demonstrate integration of Open Data into business operations in a useful, profitable manner.

The paper starts with state of the art about using Open Data in business. The next part  explains Linked Data and then presents case studies about some frequently used Open Data in business practices. The paper discusses the opportunities for integration of Open and Linked Data towards sharing marketing information, and proposes a conceptual Disrupting Marketing Mix 3.0 Model, adopting the Business 3.0 approach.

Highlighting the increasing role of Linked Open Data and pointing out potential benefits and risks, the paper analyses smart innovative practices and is a source of innovation itself.

Author Biographies

Milena Yordanova Krumova, Technical University - Sofia

Milena holds Ph.D in Economics and Ph.D in Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Automation from the TU ΓÇô Sofia. She is an assistant professor at TU - Sofia. She has been participated in many research projects and have been published more than 50 scientific papers as an author and co-author. She is a member of Bulgarian Centre of Women in Technology. During the last 5 years, more than 2000 TU-Sofia students have been participated in an innovative learning scenario 2.0 model with the use of interactive media tools and applications (Learning 2.0). Currently, her research interests are in the field of open data, cloud technologies and data analytics.

Lyudmila Blagoeva Paunova, Technical University - Sofia

Lyudmila have graduated bachelor degree in Business Administration at the TU - Sofia. Now, she stud Master degree in ERP systems at the TU-Sofia. She is author and co-author of some scientific publications in the field of Marketing, she has participated in International Scientific Conferences in Management and Engineering. She took part in forums for Entrepreneurship and was a volunteer for NASA International Space Apps Challenge in Bulgaria (2014 – 2016). 

Stefka Stanislavova Yotova, Technical University - Sofia

Currently, Stefka is a Master degree student in the field ERP systems at the TU-Sofia. During her bachelor studies in Business Administration, she was a co-author of some scientific research papers, published in the journal of the International Scientific Conference in Management and Engineering, organized by the TU - Sofia. She has taken part in youth projects related to Social entrepreneurship (Lithuania) and Seizing Business Opportunities in Towns (Slovakia).


Ahmadi-Zeleti, F. (2016). Best Practices/Open Data Business Model Patterns and Open Data Business Value Disciplines. Retrieved from:

Algemene Rekenkamer. (2015). Open Data Trend Report 2015. Retrieved from:

AudienceBloom. (2016). What Works in Online Marketing. Retrieved from:

Bauer, F., Kaltenb├╢ck, M. (2012). Linked Open Data: The Essentials, A Quick Start Guide For Decision Makers. Retrieved from:

Bizer, C., Heath, T., Berners-Lee, T. (2009).This is a preprint of a paper to appear in: Heath, T., Hepp, M., and Bizer, C. (eds.). Linked Data ΓÇô The Story So Far. Special Issue on Linked Data, International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems (IJSWIS) 5, Issue 3

Bonina, M.C. (2013). New business models and the value of Open Data: definitions, challenges and opportunities. Retrieved from:

Breslin, J., Passant, A., Decker, S. (2009). The Social Semantic Web. Retrieved from:

Bushell, D. (2011). Understanding Copyright And Licenses. Retrieved from:

Carrara, W., San Chan, W. (2015). European Commission: Creating Value through Open Data: A study on the impact of Re-use of Public Data Resources. Retrieved from:

Charlotte, J. (2016). 14 innovative UK companies using Open Data 2016. Retrieved from:

Choudhury, N. (2014). World Wide Web and Its Journey from Web 1.0 to Web 4.0. (IJCSIT) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technologies, 5 (6) , 2014, 8096-8100

Chui, M., Manyika, J., Bughin, J., Dobbs, R., Roxburgh, C., Sarrazin, H., ... Westergren, M. (2012). The social economy: Unlocking value and productivity through social technologies. Retrieved from:

Costantino, J. (2011). Again, What is The Purpose of Marketing?. Retrieved from:

Deloitte. (2012). Open Data Driving growth, ingenuity and innovation. Retrieved from:

Dobney. (n.d.). Market Intelligence. Retrieved from:

Gaskin, E. (2013). Marketing Innovation Defined. Retrieved from:

Govlab. (2014). The GovLab Selected Readings on the Economic Impact of Open Data. Retrieved from:

Gruen, N., Houghton, J., Tooth, R. (2014). Open for Business: How Open Data Can Help Achieve the G20 Growth Target. Retrieved from:

Gurin, J. (2013). Big Data Vs Open Data ΓÇô Mapping It Now. Retrieved from:

Hand, D. (2012). Open Data is a force for good, but not without risks. Retrieved from:

Hyland, B., Atemezing, G., Pendleton, M., & Srivastava, B. (Eds.). (2013). Linked Data Glossary. Retrieved from:

Janssen, M., Charalabidis, Y., Zuiderwijk, A. (2012). Benefits, Adoption Barriers and Myths of Open Data and Open Government. Information Systems Management, (ISM), 29, no.4, pp. 258-268.

Jisc. (2013). Open/Linked Data. Retrieved from:

Kalcheva, D. (2015). Linked Data adoption and application within financial business processes. Retrieved from:

Khanzode, Ku. Ch. A., Sarode, R. D. (2016). Evolution of the World Wide Web: from Web 1.0 to Web 6.0. International Journal of Digital Library Services 6, April - June 2016, Issue - 2

Linked Education. (2014). Linked Learning meets LinkedUp: Learning and Education with the Web of Data. Retrieved from:

Manyika, J., Chui, M., Farrell, D., Van Kuiken, S., Groves, P., & Doshi, E. A. (2013). Open Data: Unlocking innovation and performance with liquid information. Retrieved from:

Marketing Land. (n.d.). What Is Social Media Marketing?. Retrieved from:

Marketing Science Institute. (2014). How Social Media Data Becomes Marketing Intelligence. Retrieved from:

Nieuwenhuis, M., Steenbergen, E.V., Carrara, W. (2016). Overcoming Open Data barriers in the European Union. Retrieved from:

Open Data Enterprise. (n.d.). What Is Open Data?. Retrieved from:

Open Data Institute. (n.d.a). Getting started with data cleaning. Retrieved from:

Open Data Institute. (n.d.b). What do ODI Certificates look for?. Retrieved from:

Open Data Institute. (n.d.c). What makes data open?. Retrieved from:

Patel, K. (2013). Incremental Journey for World Wide Web: Introduced with Web 1.0 to Recent Web 5.0 ΓÇô A Survey Paper. International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering, 3, October 2013, Issue 10

Plumbaum, T. Wu. S., De Luca, E. W., Albayrak, S. (2011). User Modeling

for the Social Semantic Web. Retrieved from:

Polańska, K. (2014). Social Media In Modern Business. European Scientific Journal September 2014 /SPECIAL/ edition 1

Prasad, A. (2014). How Semantic Web Tech Can Make Big Data Smarter. Retrieved from:

Rahm, E., Do, H.H. (2000). Data Cleaning: Problems and Current Approaches. Retrieved from:

Robak, S., Franczyk, B., Robak, M. (2012). Applying Linked Data Concepts in BPM. Proceedings of the Federated Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems, Wroclaw, pp. 1105ΓÇô1110

Robinson, I., Webber, J., Eifrem, E. (2015). Graph Databases. Retrieved from:

Techopedia. (n.d.). Data Cleansing. Retrieved from:

UNESCO Institute for Statistic. (2009). Measuring innovation [Presentation]. Training Workshop on Science, Technology and Innovaton Indicators Cairo, Egypt, 28-30 September 2009

Verhulst, S. (2014). Business Models That Take Advantage of Open Data Opportunities. Retrieved from:

Warrink, D. (2015). The Marketing Mix in a Marketing 3.0 Context. Retrieved from: