Barriers to investment toward Barriers to learning: the case of Béjaia area's companies in Algeria

Khierddine Gani, Boukrif Moussa


The purpose of this paper is to identify the obstacles inhibiting the building culture of organizational learning in the Algerian company. The business climate or the professional conditions in which Algerian companies operate are steadily worsening according to the Doing Business report 2016. Algeria does not facilitate the task for its entrepreneurs, quite the contrary. The Doing business report make a comparison of countries in the world in the field of entrepreneurship, and Algeria is very poorly placed. Algeria continues to fall in the Doing Business ranking of the World Bank and loses two more places compared to the last year joining the group of the last countries. Algeria, ranked 163 out of 189 countries in Doing Business 2016, remains a very difficult country to do business. Starting from this idea, we will see how these barriers to investment -the complexity of procedures to create companies, the long durations to receive a building permit, etc- are mainly caused by the institutional deficit in the coordination of economic activity, have contributed to the construction of obstacles to organizational learning in Algerian companies.


learning by exploitation, learning by exploration, environmental stability, formalization, centralization of decision-making.

Full Text:



Atuahene-Gima, K. (2003). The Effects of Centrifugal and Centripetal Forces on Product Development Speed and Quality: How Does Problem Solving Matter? Academy of Management, 46(3), 359-373. doi:10.2307/30040629

Birkinshaw, J., Hood, N., & Jonsson, S. (1998). Building firm-specific advantages in multinational corporations: the role of subsidiary initiative. Strategic Management Journal, 19(3), 221ΓÇô242. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0266(199803)19:3<221::AID-SMJ948>3.0.CO;2-P

Bunderson, J. S., & Boumgarden, P. (2010). Structure and Learning in Self-Managed Teams: Why ΓÇ£BureaucraticΓÇ¥ Teams Can Be Better Learners. Organization Science, 21(3), 609ΓÇô624. doi:10.1287/orsc.1090.0483

Burns, T., & Stalker, G. M. (1961). The management of innovation. London: Tavistock Publications.

Company directory and business data solutions. (n.d.). Retrieved from Kompass:

Deshpande, R., & Zaltman, G. (1982). Factors Affecting the Use of Market Research Information: A Path Analysis. Journal of Marketing Research, 19(1), 14-31. doi:10.2307/3151527

Dess, G. G., & Beard, D. W. (1984). Dimensions of Organizational Task Environments. Administrative Science Quarterly, 29(1), 52-73. Retrieved from

Dewar, R. D., Whetten, D. A., & Boje, D. (1980). An Examination of the Reliability and Validity of the Aiken and Hage Scales of Centralization, Formalization, and Task Routineness. Administrative Science Quarterly, 25(1), 120-128. doi: 10.2307/2392230

Easterby-Smith, M. (1997). Disciplines of organizational learning: contributions and critiques. Human Relations, 50(9), 1085ΓÇô1113. doi:10.1023/A:1016957817718

Fang, C., Lee, J., & Schilling, M. A. (2009). Balancing Exploration and Exploitation Through Structural Design: The Isolation of Subgroups and Organizational Learning. Organization Science , 21(3), 625 - 642. Retrieved from

Hage, J., & Aiken, M. (1967). Relationship of Centralization to Other Structural Properties. Administrative Science Quarterly, 12(1), 72-92. Retrieved from

Hair, J. F., Tatham, R. L., Anderson, R. E., & Black, W. (1998). Multivariate Data Analysis (5 ed.). Prentice Hall.

Hedberg, B. (1981). How Organizations Learn and Unlearn. In P. N. Starbuck, Handbook of Organizational Design (Vol. 1). London: Cambridge University Press.

Jansen, J. J., Van Den Bosch, F. A., & Volberda, H. W. (2005). Managing Potential and Realized Absorptive: How do Organizational Antecedents Matter? Academy of Management Journal, 48(6), 999ΓÇô1015. Retrieved from

Khandwalla, P. (1977). Design of Organizations. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Li, M., & Simerly, R. L. (1988). The moderating effect of environmental dynamism on the ownership and performance relationship. Strategic Management Journal, 19(2), 169-179. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0266(199802)19:2<169::AID-SMJ939>3.0.CO;2-2

March, J. G. (1991). Exploration and Exploitation in Organizational Learning. Organization Science, 2(1), 71-87. Retrieved from

March, J., & H.A, S. (1958). Organizations. New York: John Wiley.

Miller, D., & Friesen, P. H. (1983). Strategy-Making and Environment: The Third Link. Strategic Management Journal, 4(3), 221-235. doi:10.1002/smj.4250040304

Nord, W., & Tucker, S. (1987). Implementing routine and radical innovations. San Francisco: New Lexington Press.

Shrivastava, P. (1983). A typology of organizational learning systems. Journal of Management Studies, 20(1), 7-28. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6486.1983.tb00195.x

Weick, K. (1969). The Social Psychology of Organizing. Reading MA: Addison-Wesley.

Zahra, S. A., & Bogner, W. C. (2000). Technology strategy and software new ventures' performance: Exploring the moderating effect of the competitive environment. Journal of Business Venturing, 15(2), 135-173. Retrieved from



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Call for Papers

The Journal of Management and Innovation is a peer-reviewed journal focused on the practical application of research and business knowledge to the real work issues facing practitioners. We are looking to present content that appeals to academics, students, entrepreneurs, and organizations of all sizes, whether for profit or not for profit.

The next issues of this publication are scheduled for October of 2017. Papers should be submitted by August 31, 2017. Submissions should include:

  • Articles in a business discipline related to management, innovation, marketing, accounting, finance, or leadership
  • APA format
  • Proper citation and references
  • Between 1,500 and 5,000 words
  • 75 to 150 word biography of the authors
  • 75 to 150 word abstract
  • 3 to 5 key words